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          作家班 等你來為中華少年作家代言
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          趙文明:鄉土作家的創作源泉
          2018年3月15日 ? admin ? 評論數 0+ ? 已影響 +

          作家王波的長篇歷史小說《努爾哈赤后宮秘史》,以波瀾壯闊的歷史畫卷展現了一個曾經的游牧、狩獵民族——滿族在長白山脈、松花江畔崛起的曲折故事。在大量史實的基礎上,圍繞努爾哈赤大妃(漢族即皇后)殉葬的清史謎案,以生動細膩的筆觸再現了歷史上風云人物阿巴亥的立體形象。這是作家積二十年之功厚積薄發以故鄉為背景的又一力作。此書出版后好評如潮,在全國多省新華書店文學暢銷書排行榜上名列前茅。

          王波生于1963年,中國戲劇家協會會員、中國戲劇文學學會會員、吉林省作家協會會員、國家二級編劇。82年在報刊上發表戲劇、小說、文評、散文、詩歌等,至今已達二百多萬字。多篇作品被國家級報刊選載并入選多種年度選本。長篇歷史小說《努爾哈赤后宮秘史》是他幾十年跋涉于文學之路邁出堅實可喜的一步。

          如果說當年王波創作的戲劇劇本《玉碎香消》是截取了這段歷史的幾個精彩片斷,那么這部長篇歷史小說《努爾哈赤后宮秘史》,則是全景式描繪了女真民族從艱難困苦、血雨腥風中跋涉的坎坷歷程。小說的人物形象和語言風格,具有濃郁的東北黑土地特色,人物血肉豐滿,情節扣人心弦,場面宏大壯觀。因此,劇本《玉碎香消》榮獲中國第五屆戲曲文學劇本創作獎、長篇歷史小說《努爾哈赤后宮秘史》入圍浩然文學獎,皆在情理之中,也是東北文壇歷史長篇小說又一宏篇力作。

          主人公阿巴亥,是從烏拉街走出的眾多嬪妃中最具代表性的人物。她坎坷的命運,悲慘而又無奈的結局,以及在歷史記載中語焉不詳的殯葬謎團,激發了作家探究歷史,依此脈絡進行文學創作的情愫。

          從書中情節看,以阿巴亥“母儀天下”的特殊身份,她既要鞏固自己的大妃之位,又必須為兒子當上儲君而謀劃,然而,一盤布局精妙縝密的好棋,被罕王努爾哈赤的突然去世打亂了。阿巴亥的三個兒子還年幼與久經戰陣、工于心計、手握重兵的皇太極無法匹敵。因此,阿巴亥待如親子的皇太極痛下殺手,迫使對他有扶養之恩的阿巴亥殉葬。阿巴亥以自己的生命避免了兒子被殺的可怕局面,萬般無奈中飽含著深沉而偉大的母愛,揭示了權力之爭的殘酷和黑暗。評論家梅紓說:如此生殉,確乎是一個自覺的“母愛獻祭”。阿巴亥與三個兒子所受的煎熬,正是“歷史對建州女真的煎熬”的重要環節,她的兒子們——阿濟格、多爾袞、多鐸,承載著這種歷史煎熬,為大清朝開疆拓土、入主中原立下汗馬功勞,皆成為名震華夏的風云歷史人物。

          小說細致描寫熬鷹的經過,這是狩獵民族訓練獵鷹的一種方式,消磨鷹的意志以進行馴化。接替努爾哈赤后來君臨天下的皇太極,從中悟出“人熬鷹”,也是“鷹熬人”的道理,暗示著歷史對建州女真的煎熬。其實,阿巴亥自嫁給努爾哈赤開始,就意味著這個柔弱女子必然要經受多舛命運、殘酷歷史的煎熬。小說中描寫皇太極以偽詔逼阿巴亥殉葬的一段極其精彩,一針見血地揭露了他善弄權術,狡詐陰狠,冷酷無情的爭權者的形象。大妃阿巴亥在生命的最后時刻,徹底看清了眼前的一切,如果繼續抗爭,年幼勢單的阿濟格、多爾袞、多鐸也難活在世上。她知道什么大妃、母儀天下,讓這一切統統見鬼去吧!自己就是三個孩子的母親。

          從這部書中我們讀出作家濃厚的故鄉情結,這又一次驗證了古今中外作家的最高夢想就是“精神回歸故鄉”。王波作為土生土長的東北人,黑土地給予他豐富的文化滋養,他對家鄉風土人情有極大興趣,對這塊土地上變幻的歷史充滿好奇。為了撰寫這部長篇歷史小說,王波查閱大量史料,多次到女真故地烏拉街等地踏察故事情節延展中所涉及的名勝古跡,積累豐富、詳實的歷史素材,并細致記錄,深入分析和研究。從歷史遺留的蛛絲馬跡中,透視部落間角斗、戰爭的驚心動魄和宮庭里權力爭奪的殘酷無情。

          周其論說“極其真實的歷史厚度和可觸摸性”。景物描寫,也是別致而唯美的。大量東北方言、滿族語、民間諺語的運用,滿族民俗、民歌、民間故事、滿族狩獵情節和風景的描寫,為冰冷的宮庭爭斗故事增添了生活的暖色和情趣,景物描寫,也是別致而唯美的,作者把阿巴亥壯麗起伏的人生波折和悲壯情懷完美地進行準確描寫,讓我們閱讀完作品后,內心彌漫一種凄美悲壯色彩,同時也有由衷的釋然。

          它不僅提升了小說的通俗性和可讀性,更使讀者對東北滿族人民的歷史、文化和生活有了深層次了解,并留下極深刻印象。呈現濃厚地域特色,這是對東北鄉土文學創作的重要貢獻。

          掩卷仔細思量,感悟到作家王波用心良苦。這本書從文學、歷史視角詮釋了大清王朝太祖努爾哈赤、大妃阿巴亥一生的命運,從女性、母愛視角控訴了封建王朝對人性的踐踏、對生命的毀滅,從心靈深處奏響了封建王朝專制的喪歌。這正是《努爾哈赤后宮秘史》這部長篇歷史小說帶給我們的獨特藝術享受和深刻人生啟迪。

          (來源:中華少年作家網/作者:趙文明)

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