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          作家班 等你來為中華少年作家代言
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          少年文學的缺失意味著什么
          2018年8月25日 ? admin ? 評論數 0+ ? 已影響 +

          在新世紀原創兒童文學的版圖上,少年文學的缺失問題,早在幾年前就引起一些出版人和寫作者的思考和重視。然而,幾年過去了,似乎并沒有出現諸如原創作品奮起直追的熱鬧場面,也沒有誕生與我們曾經的期待相匹配的好作品。這個事實也給了我們舊話重提的必要性。

          今天,當我們重新回過頭來看看當時的基本判斷:幼兒文學和童年文學呈現勃興之勢,而20世紀八九十年代曾經興盛的少年文學卻日漸式微,形成了一種結構性缺失。隔著一段較長的時間來看這個判斷,我們是不是可以感覺到這其中所蘊含的樂觀——兒童文學的整體是繁榮興盛的;也可以明晰地感覺到潛藏在其中的悲觀——比起幼兒文學和童年文學,少年文學是黯淡的。這樣的判斷很容易導向下面這個結論:兒童文學界在少年文學創作上所面臨的失語狀態,并非緣于兒童文學整體的問題,而只是個局部問題。開方子的醫生,只要像西醫那樣,頭痛醫頭腳痛醫腳就可以了,只要把這個短板補上,兒童文學就能成為一個完美的整體。事實果真是這樣嗎?

          幾年前在談到這個問題的時候,我曾經認為是兒童文學作家們丟失了少年文學這個陣地,似乎只要他們重視起來就能夠輕易地重返。但是今天,我把“丟失”更換為“退卻”。“丟失”一詞有馬虎大意的成分,“退卻”一詞以被迫無奈的成分居多。也就是說,這不是丟失陣地的問題,事實上,它可能意味著整個兒童文學創作面臨困境的最初體現。其實,在幼兒文學和童年文學創作上也面臨著同樣的問題,只是由于市場的繁榮掩蓋了而已,如果不能夠及時警醒,也許,少年文學的今天就是幼兒文學和童年文學的明天。

          當我們把少年文學放到整個原創兒童文學里考察,我們會發現,其實兒童文學在整體上依然沒能解決文學的一些基本問題,諸如人物形象塑造、語言、結構等——尤其是長篇小說的結構,這些技術層面的不成熟,由于受眾的理解力和審美判斷力尚顯稚嫩,在童年文學、幼兒文學中或可被放過,把兒童故事當成小說也能輕松過關,但少年文學的讀者已經成長為“準成人”,隨著他們自身知識、情感、經驗的豐富與發展,幼稚的文字和膚淺的內容對他們已經沒有什么吸引力。按說,這樣的狀況會倒逼著作家升級自己的知識結構,提升自己作品的文學性,深入讀者的精神世界。但是為什么反而出現作家放棄的局面呢?在這里,我們不得不提到“市場”這只看不見的手,這只手已經把兒童文學抓得越來越緊,對兒童文學創作生態和作家們的創作理念、創作姿態影響力越來越大。

          首先,在這個全球化時代,在文學的引進幾乎可以做到與國外出版同步的情況下,適合少年閱讀的作品,在原創不足或不盡如人意的情況下,少年文學完全可以靠引進國外的作品來彌補。所以對于出版社來說,原創少年文學的好與壞、多與少,似乎沒有那么緊迫;對于創作者來說,在幼兒文學和童年文學這些領地里耕耘可以名利雙收,又何必要到少年文學這個在發行量和藝術水準上都充滿不確定的領地里拓荒,做吃力不討好的事情呢?因而,少年文學的問題,是在整個兒童文學界都缺乏一種緊迫感。對于兒童文學界來說,只有當藝術和思想的短板連幼兒文學和童年文學的創作都被掣肘的時候,只有當我們的小讀者在來自全世界的童書面前建立起更高的審美需求,因而對原創兒童文學更加挑剔和苛求的時候,少年文學才會隨著整個兒童文學水準的提升而提升。因此,我們是不是可以做出這樣的盛世危言:少年文學的黯淡為兒童文學的未來命運敲響了警鐘。

          當我們把目光從少年文學和兒童文學的關系這個外部因素轉向少年文學的內部時,我們會看到,無論是創作者還是批評家,對少年文學自身的創作規律、所承載的內容,尤其是對寫作對象在這個時代具體新鮮的生活,我們都缺乏細致深入的研究和探尋。時代的巨變投身到少年內心光影的波動流轉,需要我們專注的凝視,以期能夠捕捉他們心靈深處那些稍縱即逝的思想表情。這些都需要下苦功夫、笨功夫,對于被市場嬌縱的兒童文學作家來說,這也將是一場和自身惰性、慣性的較量,是對自身的冒犯。

          談到“冒犯”一詞,兒童文學界也必須從已經形成的“兒童腔”里擺脫出來,在這種拿腔拿調的“兒童腔”里,作家有意無意地設置了很多禁忌,簡化了兒童在這個豐饒多姿時代里多樣化的生存狀態,簡化了童年生活的復雜性,從而簡化了成長的難度,似乎“真善美”是不需要艱辛的步伐就能輕易抵達的。這對少年文學的創作在思維上是攔路虎,因為青春期正是未成年人思想和情感最變動不安的年齡,是尋找自我、確認自我最活躍因而也是最生動的時期。如果不能在創作上敢于冒犯一些既定的陳舊觀念,就無法安放在這個浩瀚的時代里那些蓬勃的青春靈魂。而這一點,尤其是在這幾年的年輕作家創作中,銳氣依舊有所欠缺。

          是到該談一談兒童文學“深度寫作”問題的時候了,而少年文學正是檢驗兒童文學寫作“深度”的最佳文體之一。如果我們認為兒童文學創作的黃金期已經到來,那么這個黃金期就不應該僅僅是指市場的繁榮,更應該有拿得出手的硬作品證明原創兒童文學真正擁有自己的真金白銀。

          (來源:中華少年作家網/作者:李東華)

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